gradual process over a period of years, so that when repainting becomes necessary, the surface is in good condition to
receive the new coat, with little, if any, preparatory work required.
Checking - A paint film condition with slight breaks in the film surface, causing the undercoats to be visible.
Coat-Coating - A protective film of paint, varnish, primer, lacquer, etc.
Confined Space - Any area where dilution ventilation cannot take place, or where air flow is obstructed. Refer to
para 1-7b for examples of confined spaces.
Cracking - Breaks in a paint film which extend through the film to the underlying material.
Crawling - Creeping-The collection of paint into little drops or islands on the applied surface.
Drying oil - An oil which, when exposed in a thin film to the air, possesses to a marked degree the property of readily
absorbing oxygen and changes to a relatively hard, tough, and elastic substance.
Dulling - The loss of gloss which develops in a varnish film after drying.
Enamel - A paint which has the ability to form an especially smooth film. An enamel always contains pigment and has
moderate hiding power and color. Some enamels dry to a flat or eggshell finish instead of a gloss finish. An enamel is a
finish that comprises a dispersion of pigments in a varnish or resin vehicle or is a combination of both. This includes all
CARC coatings. Enamels dry by a process of oxidation and/or polymerization.
Feathering - The procedure of thinning a coating between a bare and a painted surface by sanding to a fine edge. It is
used when preparing touchup spots for painting and where an invisible lap is required.
Finish system - A particular combination of primers, topcoats, and pretreatment materials that are used on a specific type
of surface in order to obtain a desired result (i.e. camouflage, chemical agent resistance, etc.) Also referred to as a paint
Filler - A special paint used for filling pores or other breaks in a surface to make it smooth for further painting. When
applied and exposed to the air, a filler should dry to a relatively hard, permanent solid, capable of supporting subsequent
Flaking - When small pieces of the paint coat fall away.
Gloss - The degree of mirror-like reflection of a painted surface.
Hiding power - The ability of a paint or paint material to cover up a surface so that the surface cannot be seen.
Hydrocarbons - An organic compound, such as acetylene or benzene, that contains only carbon and hydrogen, and
occurs in petroleum, natural gas, coal, and bitumens.
Induction - A period of time required for recently mixed materials to begin to react prior to use.
Lacquer - A clear or pigmented finish whose vehicle is cellulosic or phenolic, with or without other resins or plasticizers.
Lacquer dries by solvent evaporation.
Leveling - The ability of a paint to flow, leaving a smooth film when brushed onto a surface.
Mildew - A fungus frequently noted on surfaces exposed to damp, warm climates. This is usually found on surfaces
covered with paint of a soft nature. Such paints act like flypaper and afford lodging for windblown matter from decayed
and dried vegetation. Sometimes the oil with which the paint is made or mixed from is infected and offers a breeding place
for mildew spores.
Opacity - The degree of obstruction of a coating to the transmission of visible light.
Oxidation - In coatings, the curing reaction which requires oxygen from the air to form the film.