The nature of the surface on which the material is to be applied.
The area to be covered.
For Stains. Brushes with rather stiff bristles, preferably set in rubber, are used to apply stains on wood with open
pores. The stiffness of the bristles is essential in working the stain into the pores of the wood. A softer brush is needed
for close-grained wood.
For Paints. Flat brushes with long soft bristles or hair are required to apply paint. The width will vary with the
area and nature of the surface to be covered.
For Enamels. Brushes used for enamels should be relatively large, with a chisel point. Skunk hair (fitch), rubber-
set, varnish brushes with moderately soft and fine bristles are best. This type of brush, slightly moistened with water, can
be used to touch up a non-CARC surface by rebrushing the coat, providing the brushing is done soon after the enamel
film has been applied.
Paint Rollers. Paint rollers are replacing brushes more and more. There are three types: quench, fill, and power.
The quench roller requires a tray for quenching with paint. The fill roller does not require a tray, but a funnel is needed for
filling. Both rollers require buckets and/or trays for easy handling. The power roller has an electric motor that pumps
paint directly from the container to the roller. These rollers are used mostly on large wall areas, floors, and ceilings. The
material to be applied and the nature of the surface to be treated are factors that will govern their usefulness.
5-12. BRUSHING VARIOUS MATERIALS
General. Brushing is used where rolling is impractical. A right-handed operator should start at the right edge of
the surface to be painted and proceed toward the left. Using this procedure, the full paint brush is applied to the uncoated
surface by brushing back into the wet film. By decreasing pressure at the end of a stroke, brush marking is minimized. A
left-handed operator should start at the left edge of the surface to be painted and proceed toward the right.
Stain. Apply freely, rapidly, and evenly in the direction of the wood grain, and brush well into the pores. Certain
types of stain must be wiped off with clean, lint-free cloths in order to produce a uniform effect.
Paint. On exterior woodwork, use a long, sweeping, straight stroke.
Slow Drying Enamel. Make short strokes in one direction until a small area is covered, then go back over the
area with strokes at right angles to the first, in order to obtain a smooth even coat. This operation is called "laying-off' the
finish. Follow with an adjacent area of similar size before the enamel in the first area sets.
Lacquer, Quick Drying Enamel, and Shellac. These materials must be applied rapidly. Each stroke of the
brush must completely cover the area to be traversed, and the brush must be kept well-charged with material so that no
retouching of spots is required; retouching results in a rough finish. This procedure is sometimes referred to as "flowing
on" a coat.
Varnish. Use a well-charged brush, and depending upon the speed with which the varnish dries, quickly "flow on"
the coat. If possible, "lay-off' the finish to give a smooth film.
Brushing Technique. See figure 5-16.